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探月计划#1:Emily Calandrelli —— 她鼓舞着整整一代女孩

Inspiring an Entire Generation of Girls: Emily Calandrelli

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Ladies Who Tech推出了我们的全新系列访谈——探月计划,本期系列访谈将带领大家聚焦海外的女性STEM领袖。通过讨论STEM领域的性别差距、攻读STEM学科的女性之稀缺以及隐形的入门阻碍等话题,我们希望能从她们的经历中学习,并在这些问题上获得更多全球视角,思索我们在国内应当如何解决它们。
我们的第一位嘉宾是Emily Calandrelli,她是一位出色的美国科学传播者、麻省理工学院工程师、作家、获得艾美奖提名的电视节目主持人,最重要的是,她是一位致力于让年轻女孩走入科学世界的倡导者。

Ladies Who Tech is beyond excited to launch our new interview series, "Moonshot", that'll put the spotlight on our female STEM leaders outside of China. Through our conversations about the gender gap in STEM, the lack of girls pursuing STEM subjects, the invisible barriers to entry and many more, we hope to learn from their experiences, gain a more global perspective on the matter and understand how we can tackle the problem at home.
Our first guest is the amazing Emily Calandrelli, who is an American science communicator, MIT engineer, author, Emmy-nominated TV host, and above all, a huge advocate for connecting young girls to the world of science.

“我们不想要女主持人” “We don't want female hosts”

Emily 告诉 Ladies Who Tech:“在有一次制作人会议上,电视台的高管说:‘我们台的观众主要都是男性,所以不知道女主持人是否能引起他们的共鸣。’”
接着他们问她是否有一个能和她一起主持节目的男朋友。
“我记得当时自己满脑子都是:‘天呐,这种评价真的令人感到非常不适。’”她回忆道。
她补充道:“很有意思的是,在任何一个工作环境下,比如在办公室里,说出这样的话都是完全不合适的。但一旦当他们用‘营销’和‘收视率’作为借口时,一切似乎就瞬间变得正当而合理了。如果你去看那些科学节目的主持人,就会发现他们都在某一点上非常相似——性别。他们都是男性。”
幸运的是,Emily并没有放弃。当她最终参加与奈飞(Netflix)的会议时,双方迅速达成一致意见制作《艾米丽神奇实验室》,这是一档由10个部分组成的特色科学节目,由儿童科学家们用粘液、鸡蛋、荧光颜料、彩虹泡沫、太阳能微波炉等材料进行自己的实验。所有的内容都以一种有趣、易理解的形式被展现到观众眼前。

“In one production meeting, the TV executives said, 'Our audience is primarily male, so we don't know if they would relate well to a female host',” Emily told Ladies Who Tech.
Then they asked her if she had a boyfriend who could co-host with her.
“I remember thinking, ‘Ugh, that's really uncomfortable feedback’,” she said.
“It’s interesting because under any work situation – for example in an office – to say that sentence out loud would be entirely inappropriate. But when they say it's for the sake of ‘marketing’ and ‘viewership’, then it's allowed. So, if you look at the hosts of these science programs, they all look remarkably similar: They’re all men,” she added.
Luckily, Emily didn't give up. When she finally attended a meeting with Netflix, they were immediately on board with Emily's Wonder Lab, a 10-part science show that features children scientists conducting their own experiments with slime, eggs, fluorescent paint, rainbow foam, solar microwaves and many more, all packaged in a fun, easily digestible format.

在每一集节目中不断鼓舞着年轻女孩们 Inspiring young girls, one episode at a time

《艾米丽神奇实验室》这个节目本身就是一次实验,因为它是Netflix首档面向儿童的科普真人秀。
“我们不知道这个节目能不能火,但是Netflix对这个节目非常期待,不仅因为儿童科普节目这一概念,也因为我这个主持人本身是理科出身的,所以每一个实验都是完全真实的。”Emily回忆着说。
即将实现科普节目主持梦想的Emily在去年就完成了整季科普秀的录制,即便那时她已经怀孕将近9个月。Emily的丈夫Tom Franklin同样毕业于麻省理工大学,是一位航空航天工程师。Emily录制节目期间,Tom便飞到洛杉矶,以确定不会错过孩子降生。
“我本以为Netflix会拒绝我的提议,更何况那时候我还有孕在身,但是Netflix仍然同意了——我仿佛听到所有的偏见在我面前粉碎——竟然有一位身怀六甲的女士在Netflix上给孩子科普,这真的非常酷!”她说。
“有时候在录制期间我会觉得孕期反应很严重,但是当我兴奋时,肾上腺素一上来就感觉不到任何不适了。这是我在Netflix的第一个主持节目,这是我梦寐以求的舞台。我非常感谢Netflix给我这次机会,没有什么能阻挡我实现梦想的脚步。“她补充道。
“家长们告诉我孩子开始用科学方法提出假设、得出结论——这正是我最想看到的。”她说。
“我非常喜欢看到孩子们收看节目后,能够学以致用——用这些原理建立假设、提出问题、反复试错,并最终能用于解决他们今后在现实生活中遇到的问题,”她说,“更重要的是,我希望他们认识到失败并不可怕。 ”
“有的家长告诉我,他们的孩子——有男孩子也有女孩子——直到看了我的节目才知道自己长大后想要做什么。现在他们都想要成为科学家!”Emily骄傲地笑道。
这正是Emily希望通过她的节目和儿童系列丛书《Ada Lace历险记》解决的STEM领域的一大痛点。《Ada Lace历险记》讲述了三年级小朋友Ada Lace在科技世界的奇遇。
“孩子们小的时候,不论男女都对科学很感兴趣。” 她说,“但是到了一定年龄,女孩子就会接触到那些带有偏见的观点——‘科学不是她们玩儿的东西’。”
随着年龄的增长,女孩似乎对STEM科目失去了兴趣,在中学的高级课程中较低的参与度佐证了这一点。联合国教科文组织(UNESCO)报告称,在高等教育领域,女性仅占所有STEM领域相关项目入学学生的35%。
除了缺乏榜样之外,从小到大,女孩们也一直被灌输STEM问题是“男性化”的这一观念,相信女性在这一领域的能力天生就不如男性。报告指出,这一观念会削弱女孩对从事STEM学科相关学习、工作的信心、兴趣和意愿。
“要改变从事STEM领域工作的人口结构,就要从孩子抓起。所以我就针对这一年龄段的女孩子,希望给她们做个榜样。我要告诉她们女孩子喜欢科学、成为科学家,一点都不稀奇。 ”Emily说。

Emily's Wonder Lab was an experiment itself, as the program is Netflix's first live-action style show produced for their kids’ division.
“We're not sure if it’ll catch on, but Netflix was very excited about the concept of a science program for kids and that the host, me, would have a background in science. So, everything I was doing on the show is absolutely authentic,” said Emily from her home in San Jose, California.
On the cusp of realizing her dream, she also decided to film the entire season last year while almost nine months pregnant.
Emily's husband, Tom Franklin, who is also an MIT graduate and aerospace engineer, flew to Los Angeles with her for the duration of filming in case the baby came early.
“I actually expected Netflix to reject my pitch, especially when I told them I was pregnant, but they still agreed to do the show – I can almost hear all these stereotypes breaking in front of me – and now there's a heavily pregnant lady on Netflix teaching kids about science, and that's very, very cool!” she said.
“There were definitely days during filming where I felt super pregnant, but the adrenaline just took over and masked any discomfort. This is the first Netflix show of my own and this is my dream. I'm so grateful for this opportunity and nothing is going to hold me back,” she added.
Emily's Wonder Lab was a HUGE success. Ever since the show's premiere in August, Emily's inbox has been flooded with hundreds of messages every day from grateful parents who were so happy to see their children continuing to learn at home during the pandemic.
“Parents are telling me that their kids are hypothesizing about everything and arriving at conclusions through the scientific method – and that's the best thing I could hope for,” she said.
“I love seeing children who have watched the show take the principles that they learned – from creating a hypothesis, asking good questions to practicing trial-and-error – and applying them to problems they see in the world,” she said. “More importantly, I hope they learn that it's okay to fail.”
“I've had parents tell me that their children – both boys and girls – never knew what they wanted to grow up to be until they watched the show. Now, they want to become scientists!” Emily said, brimming with pride.
This is actually a pain point in the STEM field that Emily hopes to help solve through her show and her children's book series, The Ada Lace Adventures, which follows 3rd grader Ada Lace's journey in the world of science and technology.
“When they are much younger, children of all genders are always so excited about science,” she explained. “But at a certain point, girls would get the idea that science isn't for them.
Girls appear to lose interest in STEM subjects with age, and lower levels of participation are already seen in advanced studies at secondary level. By higher education, women represent only 35 per cent of all students enrolled in STEM-related fields of study, UNESCO reported.
Apart from a lack of representation, girls are often brought up to believe that STEM topics are "masculine" and that female ability in this field is innately inferior to that of males. This can undermine girls' confidence, interest and willingness to engage in STEM subjects, the report added.
“To change the demographic of who ends up in STEM, you have to start at a young age. So, I'm targeting girls at that age group and hoping to provide some representation for them. I'm showing them that it's totally normal for a girl to love and work in science,” Emily said.

阻挡女性进入科学领域的三座大山 The three big barriers for women going into science

然而,即使女孩儿们决定在大学攻读STEM专业,她们在毕业后也通常不会在相关领域中久驻深耕。
“随着年龄的增长,越来越少的女性会留在科学领域。”Emily以此描述“管道泄漏”现象。
“管道泄漏”的比喻指的是在各个学科中,尤其是STEM相关学科,女性的大量流失。美国心理学会发表的一项研究显示,这些“泄漏”在各职业阶段都存在,从学术上,学士到博士的培养,到在后续学术就业的选拔、晋升和留任的环节中。联合国教科文组织则称,全球仅有30%的研究人员为女性。
妇女为研究课题、方法论以及数据解读带来了重要的生活经验和独特的视角,(有女性参与的)研究结论及最终形成的技术将造福全人类。妇女从“STEM管道”外流对整个科学进步产生了极其负面的影响,尤其在现今日益全球化和技术驱动的社会。
科学界女性流失的原因是多方面的,但Emily相信究其根本是因为:缺少榜样、不完善的育婴假体系以及性骚扰带来的伤害。
她曾被不断问及这样一个问题:“为什么没有女性科学家?”
“有。我们就在这儿,我们无处不在。并非我们没有像 Bill Nye(偶像级美国科普工作者)一样伟大的女性科学家,而是我们没有得到同样的机会、曝光或者平台。对有色人种女性科学家来说更是难上加难。”Emily说道。在她的个人网站上,她罗列了一串长长的名字,她们都是在STEM领域中做出卓越贡献的女性。
“就和STEM一样,好莱坞是个讲关系网的地方,这些高管们更喜欢雇佣和他们相似的人,循环往复,使得男性观众群体成为绝大多数。这种模式是可以被改变的,只要主流电视网络愿意让更多女性来主持他们的节目。”
一项近期的关于全美超过8年STEM工龄人员的研究显示,竟有43%的被调研女性在她们生完第一个孩子后离开原来的全职工作。她们或者转为兼职,转为非STEM行业,或者彻底成为全职妈妈。
美国是经合组织成员国中唯一一个没有法定带薪产假、陪产假和育婴假的国家。《家庭及医疗假期法案》(FMLA)给予了部分员工享受至多12周的无薪产假,但事实上只有60%的员工有资格享受。
“这真是令人尴尬的局面,家庭假期的政策向公众传递的信息应该是生育是被预期以及可接受的。”Emily说。
同时,《大西洋月刊》2015年的一份报告发现,美国大学的性骚扰问题依然存在,接受调查的女性科学教授中,三分之一的人表示自己曾被性骚扰。
Emily说道:“我们必须更严肃的对待这个问题,肇事者必须承担清晰的法律后果。女性不应该因为她们的雇主缺乏良好的保护机制而不得不依靠‘耳语网络’和‘生存技能’”。

However, even if these girls do decide to pursue a STEM subject in university, they don't stay in the field for long after graduation.
“As we get older, there are fewer women who remain in the science field,” Emily said, describing the “leaky pipeline” phenomenon.
The “leaky pipeline” metaphor refers to the drastic loss of female workers in a variety of disciplines, most prevalently in the fields of STEM. These “leaks” have been identified at various career stages, including the bachelor’s-to-PhD pipeline, and at the academic employment stages of selection, promotion and retention, according to a study published by the American Psychological Association. According to UNESCO, just 30 per cent of the world's researchers are women.
Women bring vital life experiences and unique perspectives to research questions, methodology and interpretation of data, and research conclusions and its resulting technology affect all genders of the human race. The exodus of women out of the STEM pipeline has dire impacts on scientific advancement as a whole — especially in today's increasingly globalized and technology-driven society.
The reasons for the attrition of women in science are multifaceted, but Emily believes it all comes down to lack of representation, lack of paid parental leave systems and women falling victims to sexual harassment.
One question that she's been asked over and over again is: “Where are the female scientists?”
“Oh we're here. We're everywhere. It's not that these female versions of Bill Nye (iconic American science communicator) don't exist, it's because we don't get the same opportunities, exposure, or platforms as our male peers. This is even more true for women of colour,” Emily said. On her website, she has also compiled an extensive list of women in STEM who are making amazing contributions in the field.
“Like STEM, Hollywood is an old boys' network, and these executives tend to hire people that are like them, which in turn induces an overwhelmingly large male viewership. This pattern could stop if major networks decide to have more females host their shows instead,” she said.
A recent study of American STEM workers over an eight-year period showed that an alarming 43 per cent of women left their full-time jobs after having their first child. They either went part-time, switched to non-STEM careers or left the workforce altogether.
The US is the only OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) country without a national statutory paid maternity, paternity or parental leave. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) enables some employees to take up to 12 weeks unpaid maternity leave but only 60 per cent of workers are eligible.
“It's embarrassing, really. Policies on family leave should send the message that having children is expected and accepted,” Emily said.
At the same time, a 2015 report by The Atlantic found that sexual harassment at US universities persists, with one in three women science professors surveyed reported being a target of sexual harassment.
“We've got to take this issue more seriously and have clear, legal ramifications when it happens. Women aren'se companies we work for wouldn't protect us,” Emily said.

“艾米丽神奇实验室”效应 The Emily's-Wonder-Lab Effect

Emily希望《艾米丽神奇实验室》的成功能够鼓励全世界的电视网络来制作面向孩子们的STEM题材的节目。
据《自然》杂志报道,随着中国技术能力的迅速发展,中国研发产业的员工从2009年的320万人增加到2016年的580万人,这凸显了对更多女性科学家的需求。目前,女性仅占这领域劳动力的四分之一左右。
“像《艾米丽神奇实验室》这样的节目能够激励下一代科学家和工程师,而正是他们将助力自己国家的进步。”Emily说到,顺口提及她自己其实是家庭中第一个攻读STEM学位的人。
“这个节目已经激励了许多孩子立志献身科技领域。我们将会在十到十五年之后,他们报考高校时,以及二十年之后他们进入工作时,看到这个节目的积极影响。”
对于自己刚刚满一岁的女儿,Emily唯一的愿望就是她的未来没有那些“大山”,而她有权力选择任何一条职业发展之路。
“她可以成为任何她想成为的人,但当然如果能当一个科学家就太棒了!”Emily说着笑了起来。

目前,她正在全力筹备《艾米丽神奇实验室》第二季。
“我对这个节目非常有信心。它正在真切地改变和激励着许多许多人。我知道有些孩子一口气看了三遍。而且我还有一整个图书馆的科学实验可以上节目。”她说。
“《艾米丽神奇实验室》虽然是面向孩子们的,但它的影响力跨越了年龄层级,”她补充道,“它不仅仅是一个学习科学知识的好节目,它还在改变人们对于‘谁能够从事科学研究’的观念。”

Emily hopes the success of Emily's Wonder Lab could prompt TV networks all over the world to produce more STEM-related content for children.
In China's R&D sector, the number of workers swelled from 3.2 million in 2009 to 5.8 million in 2016 as the country rapidly expands its technological capabilities, highlighting a demand for more female scientists, according to science journal Nature. Currently, women make up only about one-quarter of this workforce.
“Shows like this help inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers – and these people help the advancement of their countries,” Emily said, adding that she was actually the first person in her family to pursue a STEM degree.
“This show has already inspired so many kids to dedicate their lives to science and technology. We’ll be able to see that impact in 10 to 15 years when they go to college and in 20 years when they start contributing to the workforce,” she said.
For her own daughter, who just turned one year old, Emily just wants a future for her where these barriers would no longer exist, where she would feel empowered to choose any career path she wants.
“She can be anything she wants – but obviously I would love it if she were a scientist!” Emily laughed.
Right now, she's focusing all her energy on getting a Season 2 for Emily's Wonder Lab.
“I believe in this show so much. I think it's genuinely creating real change and inspiring so many people. I know kids who have binged watched it three times straight. I have a whole library of science experiments to pitch for the show,” she said.
“Emily's Wonder Lab may be kid-focused, but its impact extends beyond that age group,” she added. “It isn't just good for learning about science, it's also changing the perception of who is welcome in the world of science.”

Ladies Who Tech相信教育是赋权女性的驱动力,也是女性未来成功的基础。我们希望,通过研讨会、年度大会与各种活动将妇女纳入STEM话题中,企业与组织将受到鼓舞进而制定更多包括妇女与母亲在内的变革政策。快来加入我们的社群吧!

At Ladies Who Tech, we believe education is an engine to women's empowerment and the foundation for a future of success. We hope that through connecting women in STEM through workshops, conventions and events, companies and organizations will leave inspired to enact changes that are more inclusive of women and mothers. Come join our community!

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